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ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)

ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)

Загальна довжина клинка mm: 265 ±05 мм
Матеріал леза Клинок з мозаїчного дамаску, твердість ріжучої кромки 60-61hrc
Твердість клинка (метал): Загартованість - 60-61 HRC
Матеріал руків'я: Stabilized elk antler, neuselber, g10, stabilized mammoth tooth, hybrid of amber and loofah plant in acrylic, mosaic binding tube and foam. Strap from 3mm leather cord, hybrid beads and polar bear claw.
Довжина леза 130±05 мм
  • Availability: In Stock
28,000.00 грн.

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SPECIFICATIONS:

The name of the knife: ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
Knife type: Fixed blade
Brand: Pavlo Honcharenko's Handmade Knives Studio


Blade material: Blade - mosaic Damascus steel, cutting edge hardness 60-61hrc
Steel sheet: 1-piece, forged, mounting handle is embedded in epoxy glue
Blade Sharpening Angle: 36 Degree Pointed
Descents: Straight
Reduction: 0.2 mm
Blade hardness: 60-61 HRC
Overall length: 278mm
Blade length: 130 mm
Blade width: 32 mm
Blade thickness: 4.0 mm
Handle length: 135mm
Handle thickness: 32mm
Grinding of the blade: The finish of the blade is mirror polishing
Bolster and back material: Brass
Handle material: Stabilized elk antler, neuselber, g10, stabilized mammoth tooth, hybrid of amber and loofah plant in acrylic, mosaic binding tube and foam. Strap from 3mm leather cord, hybrid beads and polar bear claw.
Handle color: Blue-blue
Handle Impregnation: Yes
Handle Cover: Yes
Lace hole (for lanyard): Yes
Lanyard: Lanyard made of 3mm leather cord, hybrid beads and polar bear claw.
Scabbard: Tinted maple top, hand-carved wood, Italian genuine vegetable-tanned calfskin, treated with water-repellent finish and impregnated with protective solutions, stitched with waxed thread. Manual embossing of the invoice. An insert from a hybrid. The hanger is free, removable


Model: ARCTIC exclusive handmade knife by PAVL GONCHARENKA, order to buy in Ukraine (Steel - mosaic damask, cutting edge hardness 60-61 HRC)
Model number: 122
Country of birth: Ukraine
Artisan: Master Pavlo Honcharenko, Ivankiv, Ukraine ( "Pavel Honcharenko's handmade knives" )
Best use : Hunting, fishing, tourism, household, carcass division, slicing
Knife condition: new


The price is indicated together with the scabbard.


A sharpened knife is not a cold weapon.


Our knives are very sharp, so open and use very carefully. We are not responsible for injuries related to the use of our knives.
Our products are intended for legal use only by responsible buyers. We will not sell our products to anyone under the age of 18.


Availability changes regularly, upon confirmation of your order, we will inform you about the availability or when the product will be ready. The product may differ slightly from the one shown in the photo.


What is Damascus steel? Mosaic damask.

Damascus steel sometimes seems like something ephemeral and unreal, which came to us from the depths of the ages, the times of knights and crusades. Few knife materials are surrounded by such a deep veil of myths and legends, enhancing curiosity and admiration. What is Damascus steel? Is it realistic to buy real Damascus steel? What is the truth in these stories, and what is fiction?

First of all, we will have to debunk the myth about the very origin of Damascus steel. The homeland of her invention is not Damascus at all, as is commonly believed. The first references to the production of this material are found as early as 1300 BC. e. in Eastern Asia. But inventors from different countries came to the welded manufacturing method, which is still used today, almost at the same time. It is known that in the III century the Roman Empire was the supplier of Damascus, in the XI century - Iran. The heyday of Damascus as steel for knives and swords dates back to the 13th century, when production moved from Asian centers to the territory of Germany. Then why "Damascus steel"? The answer is simple and concise - at that time, the city of Damascus was the center of arms trade, where you could buy Damascus steel knives for any taste. As a result, they were given the name of the city of the same name.

What is remarkable about this material? In ancient times, it was believed that  Damascus steel  has truly unique strength, hardness and durability. It was believed that she was able to cut chain mail like butter. A significant contribution to the emergence of such myths was made by novelists of works on chivalric themes. In particular, Walter Scott was a fan of this material. What are the features of Damascus steel blades?

The category of Damascus steel includes two types of materials - refined and welding steel. For the production of refined Damascus steel, a homogeneous piece of metal is subjected to repeated reforging in order to get rid of harmful impurities and slags. But from the 18th century, this method was replaced by a more effective one - welding. In this case, heterogeneous material consisting of blanks with different carbon content is subject to reforging. This makes it possible to combine different properties of materials. Materials with different indicators of strength, hardness, elasticity and viscosity complement each other, giving the final product a combination of their properties. The layers of iron are soft, preventing the steel from being too brittle, and the components with a high carbon content, which are part of the composition, give elasticity and hardness.

At the same time, the disadvantage of Damascus steel is weak resistance to rusting due to the large percentage of carbon in the forging elements and the practically zero content of alloying elements. Therefore, after use, Damascus knives should be cleaned of dirt and wiped dry to avoid premature wear. It is worth noting that modern manufacturers have learned to create stainless Damascus steel, which has attracted the attention of fans of this knife material even more.

Previously, materials with different properties and carbon content were combined with welding, alternating folding and forging, and in this way material with different hardness and viscosity was obtained. Thus, at the same time, Damascus steel became hard and flexible enough not to chip and crack with accidental blows or falls. And due to the diffusion of carbon, its content has an average value in the entire workpiece. A more progressive method has become the use of specially designed kharalugs - these are twisted coils of wire made of dissimilar steels, which are subject to further reforging.

Remarkably, the pattern that Damascus steel forms was not the purpose of using twisted kharalugs. During forging and further treatment of the surface with acids, it became a side effect and a kind of symbol of Damascus steel. This is an optical effect that occurs due to the heterogeneity of the forging materials. High-class manufacturers of knives made of Damascus steel achieve not only a leaf pattern on the blade, but also floral patterns and beautiful symmetrical patterns.

Blades made of Damascus steel have long been endowed with supernatural abilities. It was believed that they cut through chain mail like butter, cut swords from other steels, and supposedly knights valued such steel as much as gold. Unfortunately or fortunately, this is not reasoned. Rather, it is a poetic deviation and exaggeration of the characteristics of this material. Blades made of Damascus steel are indeed very strong and hard, have excellent flexibility, but at the same time they will not be able to cut other types of steel or possess magical properties. Numerous metallurgical studies have not proven that Damascus steel can violate any laws of physics.

Today, Damascus steel can be bought in a wide range. Modern manufacturers have high-tech production methods that minimize the amount of slag and harmful impurities. The use of Damascus in the production of knives is quite common - many tourist, hunting and pocket knives can be selected with a blade made of this material. They can be considered premium products due to aesthetic and mechanical performance. Such multi-layered, aesthetically attractive blades will be an excellent option for a gift to a dear person who understands beautiful, effective and functional knives.​


 

Elk antler is a natural material for knife handles and applied arts

Elk horn: features of the production material

It so happened that most people think of products made of animal bone when they think of products made of mammoth tusk and, as an option, walrus bone. However, there is another very noteworthy material - elk horn. Read about the features of this bone in the new review of the Russian gift shop "Rus Velyka".
Elk horn has been used as a production material since time immemorial. Even our distant ancestors began to use this bone to create a wide variety of things: from amulets and jewelry to household items and even dishes. The popularity of elk antler was largely due to its availability. Compared to today, in the old days it was much easier to get elk antlers. This was also due to the fact that there were much more individuals of this species than now.
However, accessibility is not the only plus that attracted ancient masters. Elk horn was actively used by ancient artists also because of its physical properties. This bone is not only strong and durable, but also very malleable and easy to work with. This, in fact, allows you to use elk antler to create a wide variety of products of various formats: from small jewelry, talismans and so-called amulets to larger-scale products (sculptural compositions and even original panels and paintings). It is noteworthy that the physical properties of this material make it possible to work in various techniques, including the technique of threaded carving, so beloved by Russian craftsmen.
All products made of elk horn, whether it is a miniature figure or a massive sculptural composition, are not only very beautiful, but also durable. An elk antler item bought for yourself or as a gift will delight you for many years, giving positive emotions and reminding you of a pleasant meeting.
elk horn

Like many hundreds of years ago, elk horn remains one of the most beloved and popular materials for craftsmen around the world today. Improving the technique of artistic processing every year and combining innovations with ancient techniques, masters create fantastic beauty of small things.
The collection of Russian gift shop "Rus Velyka" will help you appreciate the beauty of elk antler products made by modern masters. The unique collection of bone products includes the best works of domestic masters: from small ornaments to massive complex works of art, capable of making a vivid impression even on the most experienced collector.
You can buy any elk antler product for yourself or as a gift in the "Rus Velyka" store in two convenient ways for you: on the website, by placing an order online, or directly in our exhibition hall, where you can not only view all works in detail, but and ask questions of interest.
 

Elk horn

 

The noble material has been used since time immemorial, being a popular natural raw material for artistic processing

Elk horn is a natural noble bone. Ecological material, unique in its value. Elks shed their antlers every year. Collected in the forest, they retain vital warmth, and since ancient times have been a well-known natural raw material for artistic processing.

Male moose have huge (the largest of modern mammals) shovel-shaped horns. Their span reaches 180 cm, weight - 20-30 kg. After the end of the race, which takes place in September-October, the moose sheds its antlers. You should not worry that the animal suffers when it drops its horns. Moose feels a great sense of relief, similar to the feeling of getting rid of an extra load. He does not feel pain and discomfort. In April-May, new ones begin to grow. Moose are often called plowed moose because of their horns, which are shaped like plowed moose.

Elk horns vary greatly in appearance. And therefore they are divided into three types. Horns belonging to the first have a shovel-like appearance. Elk horns of the second type are divided into two parts. The third type differs from the previous ones in that moose horns are very similar to deer horns, in that they are very branchy.

Elk horn has been used as a production material since time immemorial. Even our distant ancestors began to use this bone to create a wide variety of things: from amulets and jewelry to household items and even dishes. Elk horn was actively used by ancient artists also because of its physical properties. This bone is not only strong and durable, but also easy to work with compared to stone. This allows you to use elk horn to create a wide variety of products of various formats: from small ornaments to large-scale products - decorative compositions and original panels.

All products made of elk horn, whether it is a miniature figure or a massive sculptural composition, are not only very beautiful, but also durable. An elk antler item bought for yourself or as a gift will delight you for many years, giving positive emotions and reminding you of a pleasant meeting.

Improving the technique of artistic processing every year and combining innovations with ancient techniques, craftsmen create fantastic beauty of the product.

Exclusive gifts

Order original gifts and souvenirs at NGS Masters decorative arts workshops!

Gifts, souvenirs - a variety of elk antler products

An elk antler product is a wonderful gift with artistic and aesthetic value that will be passed down from generation to generation.

A carved product made of natural materials can be a great gift for loved ones, friends or an unusual corporate gift - a souvenir for colleagues, or add to your personal collection of exclusive items.


 

HANDLE MATERIAL - MAMMOTH'S TOOTH

Mammoth tooth is a rare raw material that is used to make decorative objects, for example, knife handles, covers for pistol grips, and jewelry. This is a unique natural element, which is rarely obtained, so its cost is quite high.

Today, the mammoth tooth, after certain processing (stabilization), is widely used by master knifemakers. Stabilization is a process of polymerization of the material under vacuum with or without the use of fat-soluble dyes, while the material is permeated with polymeric substances through.

HANDLE MATERIAL MAMMOTH TEETH

A mammoth tooth is a product of animal origin. Its exceptional feature is the fact that its source is extinct animals - mammoths. Paleontologists found that they lived on Earth about 10 thousand years ago, and their number was very large. Mammoths' teeth were not permanent and changed about four times during their lifetime. Fallen teeth, which modern scientists find during excavations, and become the basis for decorative elements, among which there are knife handles.

Due to a long stay in the soil, the material acquired a very unstable structure - the enamel became rock-hard, and the dentin, on the contrary, became loose. But modern material stabilization technologies have helped turn mammoth teeth into an excellent basis for creating luxurious knife handles. The polymer composite provides products with resistance to corrosion and moisture, and the natural base gives a unique texture and intricate pattern.

Features of the material

Mammoth molars are used to create various products. Outwardly, they look like elephant teeth, but much more have a different shade. Taking into account the historical value and rarity, the mammoth tusk is especially highly valued, since this animal became extinct long before our era. Tusks of prehistoric giants can be found not only in paleontological museums, but also on the counters of jewelry stores, they are used to decorate the interior, they are used to create various decorative elements - of course, not in their original form, but in processed form.

According to scientists, the age of the material is 10-40 thousand years. Today, how mammoths lived is not fully understood. However, the remains of these giants found by scientists, their bones, teeth, even whole carcasses allowed scientists to seriously advance in this field of research. The available data made it possible to find out what the mammals looked like, what they ate, what climatic conditions they lived in, what behavioral characteristics they had (for example, did they lead a gregarious or solitary existence).

The mammoth ate practically the same as the modern elephant: its diet consisted of plant food. In the world, the animal could feed on coniferous plants. They preferred coarse food, which they easily chewed with their strong jaws and teeth, similar to large plates. An interesting feature of the mammoth's body was that as the old tooth wore out, a new one grew, displacing the former one and taking its place. Thus, the animal could change its teeth several times during its life. All the teeth were replaced in about a ten-year interval, and the average lifespan of a mammoth was 40 years. In other words, one animal could survive an average of four complete changes of primary teeth. Thanks to this feature, people often find individual worn mammoth teeth, but do not find other traces of it.

Appearance

If you look at a mammoth tooth, you can see a non-uniform surface with ribbed edges. Bone, enamel and soft tissue alternate in this case. The material has a rather complex structure:

its basis is dentin.

The dentine layer is covered with protective enamel.

It is worth noting that the mammoth had only 4 molars and 2 tusks, which protruded outwards and served mainly for self-defense.

After special treatment, the root tooth can be used to make various jewelry products. The density of the material is very high and resembles a stone. In order to process such a product, the craftsman needs to spend a lot of effort and time.

Stabilization of raw materials

To prevent the tooth and tusk from collapsing in the process of use and making a product from it, stabilization technology is used. This is a responsible stage of processing, in which the following technologies are used:

Polycondensation.
Vacuum processing.
Application of special dyes.

All voids of the tooth are filled with a polymer substance, due to which the base acquires reliable protection against climatic influences. Such a product does not deform, cracks do not appear on it, it becomes able to withstand high temperatures. The appearance of the material also changes, becomes more attractive and unique.
 


Before the advent of this technology, mammoth teeth and bones were rarely used for making souvenirs, because they did not have sufficient strength due to the large number of cracks and delamination inside. In addition, tooth enamel has high hardness, which during processing quickly leads to the unusability of the saw. A stabilized product is much easier to subject to further processing. Mammoth tooth became especially popular in the manufacture of knife handles. It looks unusual, attractive, and if you add a dye, you can create a unique pattern that can give even such a rare thing special individuality.


G10 — in Pavel Honcharenko's handmade knives: quality, style, modernity

What kind of material is this?

G10 is a light and hard material characterized by a textured surface and special practicality. It is used to create handles on various types of knives - complex and integral, with additional elements.

The basis is a compound reinforced under pressure with fiberglass. The fibrous structure gives the material rigidity. In order to increase the important operational characteristics during the manufacture of handles, special strengthening chemical compounds are additionally added to the composition. The material is non-combustible, has higher strength characteristics - for bending, tearing and impact.

G10 is formed in layers. This allows you to paint the overlay in one or more colors, creating interesting visual effects of the product's multi-layering. Outwardly, it resembles micarta — another popular material from which RoS handmade knife covers are made

Features of the production of linings with G10

Most manufacturers subject finished G10 pads to sandblasting, which exposes the structure of the fiberglass. As a result, the handle acquires a rough surface, which prevents slipping in the hand and ensures comfortable and safe use of knives. After the finishing treatment, the surface of the pad may become dull. To restore a bright, spectacular appearance at the last stage of production, it is covered with oil or polished.

The craftsman uses G10 handle pads with various knife steels - ATS 34, CPM154CM, D2, 440C, CPM S30V, 40X13.

Advantages of the material

This modern material has the following advantages:

  • easily withstands flexibility and stretching loads;
  • has resistance to shock loads;
  • does not absorb moisture;
  • differs in high density;
  • resistant to radiation and chemicals;
  • has low electrical conductivity;
  • does not dry out and does not deform;
  • resistant to high temperatures.

Another advantage of this material is an excellent ratio of mechanical strength and light weight. This makes it possible to obtain strong linings with good operational characteristics that do not burden the knives.

High-quality and original inserts made of G10 became a wonderful decoration of exclusive and unique knives of the Studio  "Handmade Knives of Pavel Honcharenko"  (Ukraine), which offers to order and buy online store  https://knife.net.ua


maple burl

Cap is a growth on the trunk of a tree, it has a much denser structure with a completely unique cut pattern.

The cap is highly durable, the wood of the cap does not burn well, is well processed and polished.

The dimensions of the blanks are approximately 135-45-30 mm.

Stabilized wood blocks are great for creating standard through-mount and countersunk knife handles.
Also, stabilized maple sap is excellent for carving, creating miniatures, jewelry, as well as various pendants, amulets, toys and crafts.
It is convenient to work with a stabilized maple cap for both experienced craftsmen and beginners.
Stabilized wood of any color is straight, even bars of real wood - kapa maple impregnated with a special composition.
The wood stabilizer completely fills all small pores, thanks to which all the air and moisture come out of the wood, turning it into a polymerized bar of stabilized Karelian birch, only with improved properties.

Stabilized wood is many times heavier and much denser. It is not exposed to moisture, does not change its color under sunlight, remaining a much stronger and more reliable material.
All this makes stabilization an ideal material for creating objects that are exposed to all physical and climatic stresses - knife handles, cutters and various tools.

Stabilized maple sap is perfectly sanded, giving a surface as smooth as glass or stone. Without a coating in dry form, the stabilized bars have a faded appearance, but under the finishing compositions their bright deep texture is revealed.

For its unique beauty, the cap is called wooden malachite!

In general, the smaller the pattern and the larger the size of the cap, the more expensive it is.

The value of this unique material is told by a historical fact given in the book "Kapov Skrynka" (author Nadiya Perminova): "... in 1837, up to fifty rubles were paid for a cap growth of twenty pounds (a little more than 8 kg)... the same amount was estimated thoroughbred bull at an agricultural exhibition.

Today, on the world market, the price of veneered wood (solid and veneer) is several times higher than the price of any other, including: oak, elm, walnut, mahogany and any exotic species.

The unique combination of material properties, limited stocks and the uniqueness of the cap pattern in each product ultimately determined the universally recognized, high aesthetic value and corresponding consumer price of products made of this wood, which is used in the decoration of the most luxurious interiors.


Features of wood: stabilized sapwood
Sapwood is reddish-white, sometimes with a grayish sheen. The core is light, pink-brown in color. Without characteristic smell or taste. Annual rings are not too pronounced, but moderately small or medium in size on radial and tangential sections.

The rays are visible to the naked eye, but only so large.

Although most of the texture is fine-grained with straight fibers. But figured maple with a texture is often found, which includes a wavy, quilted, folded pattern or the well-known "bird's eye".

Wood has lower indicators than other types of maples. It is of medium weight (specific gravity 545 kg/m3) and hardness (Yanke hardness 850 pounds).

It has an average durability index, but with proper processing, the wood is relatively stable and not prone to rotting.

What is maple cap?
Splints on the tree with the usual direction of the fibers changed, thereby changing the wood texture characteristic of maple. It is this knotty growth that leads to the formation of strange patterns on the surface of the wood inside.

The cause of the formation of the cap is considered to be stress from trauma to the bark, fungi, wood, viruses or caused by insects. Wood, as a rule, grows quickly, abnormal growth is observed mainly in tree trunks, but also occurs on lignified roots. Due to the rapid growth and various forms of growth, the wood fibers form extremely intricate and beautiful patterns of kapa.

Uses of maple sap
Maple sap is highly valued by artists because of its unique grain texture, structure and relative rarity. Works of applied art, design objects, unique furniture, decorative veneer are created from it.

Interesting fact
In more humid parts of the range, for example, as in the Olympic National Park (English Olympic National Park), which is located near the city of Port Angeles (Washington state, USA), the bark of the broadleaf maple is covered with epiphytic species of mosses and ferns. In similarly humid areas, along the west coast of the United States, maple tree sap is most common.

Maple cap. Kapa processing
A cup made of kapa

Materials obtained from wood are widely used in folk crafts and decorative and applied arts.

Linden, aspen, birch, alder, willow - these trees also provide wood for crafts, and/or rod and linden for weaving. If the material is unusual and rare, it brings the product to a new level - a valuable product or even a work of art, which deserves a larger than local history museum. Among them is a cap (growth), a defect in the development of trees of various species. In terms of physical and aesthetic properties, processed sapwood (birch sapwood is used more often than others) can compete with valuable types of wood that are not harvested in our country, stone, bone. It is hard, strong, dense, with a characteristic fine structure, which is not difficult to emphasize and strengthen with natural methods of decoration and coloring in products made of birch bark and other species.

Caps are classified as growths on trees, local thickenings on branches, trunk, roots. It is formed by highly deformed, silky wood with many dormant buds. The interweaving of annual layers, the pattern of kidney holes and rings forms the visible structure of the wood.

And the very exits of the kidney to the surface — form a complex texture, similar to a frozen picture of drops and splashes. Both qualities, structure and texture, are used in the products.

From the growth of the wood, close to the capu souvel. In it, the wood also forms a complex, but less winding pattern, and there is no variety of kidneys characteristic of kapu. Young shoots often grow from buds on the crown of a living tree. This is typical for suveli. Growths can take the form of local and zonal thickenings. They are found both on the visible part of the plant and underground, where the cap is also covered with bark, like the trunk of a normal tree. Fresh shoots from "awakened kidneys" growing from under the ground near the parent tree allow you to find an underground cap (kapokorin).

Cap growth without special treatment as an interior decoration

Cap is a defect in the development of wood. It is difficult to single out a general or single cause of the appearance. Most likely, crown formation is a complex response of a growing tree to external influences, probably associated with mutations.

Indirect confirmation of this is the presence of multiple canes on the affected tree and its absence on neighboring trees. It is possible that local damage to the plant, disease, triggers growth (leads to protective activity in response to the tree). Kapa is more on grafted trees, trees with strong pruning. There are mentions that walnut plantations with grafted trees served as a rich source of valuable capping material. To improve the "psychological portrait" of the kapa, the concept of stronger, diseased and immune parent tree material is used. This shifts the emphasis from the growth - a disease, to the drop - evidence of the natural growth and "hardening" of the tree. Since the cap is rare, and it is very time-consuming to set up a laboratory experiment of the development of the cap, it is unlikely that such a concept has reliable factual basis.

Canker is found in the irregular formation of wood and bark from the cambium and the abnormal development of accessory buds. In the course of natural, healthy growth, a new annual layer and bark is formed from the cambium.

 

In kapi, the directions of wood growth are not oriented, the wood layers are bent and crumpled. The emergence of appendages and the presence of dormant buds waiting for their time is a normal consequence of tree growth. Superficial dormant buds can normally develop into shoots. Some find themselves in the thickness of the tree and upon awakening form local thickenings on the trunk. In the case of kapa, the process of genesis and development of the kidneys is extremely active (by the standards of the tree's life). The buds deform the wood in the thickness of the cap, forming a blistered surface.

 

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