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DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)

DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)

Загальна довжина клинка mm: 300±05 mm
Матеріал леза Blade - Damascus (Damasteel) - У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Central insert: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers, pure nickel spacers - a type of steel with visible inhomogeneities on the steel surfaces, most often in the form of patterns obtained in various ways.
Твердість клинка (метал): Hardness -58-60 HRC
Матеріал руків'я: Nickel Silver, Micarta, Buffalo Horn. Elk horn, silver frame, jasper stone eyes
Довжина леза 142±05 mm
  • Availability: In Stock
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Description

SPECIFICATIONS:

The name of the knife: DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus 58-60 HRC)
Knife type: Fixed blade
Blade: SHARPENED.
Brand: Workshop Premium collectible knives handmade by the BERSERK brand workshop


All knives of the BERSERK brand are produced in a single copy, there will be no repetitions.


A unique handmade knife that impresses with its unique style and special character.
The handle of the knife combines elements such as elk horn, buffalo horn and nickel silver.
The dragon's eyes on the handle are decorated with natural stones in a silver frame.
The blade of the knife is hand-forged Damascus steel with a complex pattern.
A leather scabbard is added to the knife.

Unbelievable craftsmanship and sophistication: handcraft in the world of knives.
Each knife is a unique work of art. The knife is made in a single copy for true connoisseurs of Viking art.
Our products are real masterpieces, which are distinguished not only by high craftsmanship, but also by the fact that each copy is unique. They are created with love and attention to detail, expressing not only the craftsman's own creativity, but also a deep fascination with history and culture.

These unique objects become part of your world, which you can now hold in your hands. They carry the energy of past eras and become an unrivaled link between modernity and ancient traditions.

Our knives impress not only with their functionality, but also with their exquisite design.

The knife handles are hand carved from moose antlers.
The animals were not injured. In November - December, the moose sheds its old antlers. In April - May, animals begin to grow new horns.
We find them in the forest, process them and make unique things for you.

A great piece for your collection and a unique gift. It can be used in camping, bushcraft, survival, hunting, fishing, etc.


Steel brand: Blade - Damascus (Damasteel) - edge and butt У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers. Central insert U9+20ХН3А 28 layers. Spacers made of pure nickel.
Steel sheet: One-piece, through installation on screed and resin
Blade Sharpening Angle: 36 Degree Pointed
Descents: Direct
Taper: 0.2mm
Blade hardness: 58-60 HRC
Total length: 300mm
Blade length: 142 mm
Blade width: 33mm
Blade thickness: 4.0 mm
Handle length: 158 mm
Handle thickness: 22 mm
Grinding of the blade: Finish - polished to a mirror
Bolster (guard) and back material: Nisilber, micarta, buffalo horn.
Handle Material: Nickel Silver, Micarta, Buffalo Horn. Elk horn, silver frame, jasper stone eyes
Handle color: Milk-coffee
Handle Impregnation: Yes
Covering of the handle: Toning varnish in the grooves
Lanyard hole (for lanyard): None
Temlyak: Absent
Sheath: Italian vegetable-tanned genuine leather, finished with water-repellent finish and impregnated with protective solutions, stitched with waxed thread. The image on the scabbard is a hand-embossed texture and artistic coloring of Berserk's own brand. Free suspension


Model: DRAGON premium collection knife handmade by the master of the BERSERK brand, buy to order in Ukraine (Steel - Damascus У9(60%)+ХВГ(30%)+40ХН2СВА(10%) 360 layers, Obuh: У9+20ХН3А 28 layers 58-60 HRC)
Model number: 002
Country of birth: Ukraine
Craftsman: BERSERK brand, Volodymyr, Ukraine, Workshop Premium collectible knives handmade by the BERSERK brand workshop
Best use: Multi-purpose: hunting, fishing, cutting, slicing, etc
Knife condition: new
The price is indicated with the sheath.

A sharpened knife is not a cold weapon.


Our knives are very sharp, so be very careful when opening and handling them. We are not responsible for any injuries related to the use of our knives.
Our products are intended for legal use only by responsible buyers. We will not sell our products to anyone under the age of 18.


Availability changes regularly, after confirming your order we will notify you of availability or when the item is ready. The product may differ slightly from the one shown in the photo.


DRAGON - the name of this unique designer knife, hand-carved, carries the energy of bygone eras and remains an unfinished pattern between modernity and long-standing traditions and mythology.

Additional information about the design and symbols of the DRAGON knife - dragons were depicted in jewelry, paintings and accessories as symbols of strength and equality for the Viking tribes.

Additional information about the division and symbols of the knife - dragons were used in jewelry, paintings and accessories as symbols of strength and equality for the Viking tribes.

A unique handmade knife that impresses with its unique style and special character.

Incredible craftsmanship and sophistication: manual work in the world of knives.
Kozhen Nizh is a unique spirit of mysticism. Below are prepared in a single copy for all connoisseurs of Viking mythology.

Our images are real masterpieces, which are distinguished not only by their high mastery, but also because each copy is unique. It was created with love and respect down to the details, expressing the master’s creativity, as well as the deep buried history and culture.

These unique objects become part of your world, which you can now hold in your hands. The smells carry the energy of bygone eras and become an unfinished link between modernity and ancient traditions.

Our knives impress not only with their functionality, but also with their elegant design.

The knife handles are hand-carved from elk antlers.
The creatures were not harmed. When the leaves fall, the elk sheds its old horns. In animals and grass, new horns begin to grow. We know them from the forest, we rework and create unique speeches for you.

A wonderful work in your collection and a unique gift. It can be used in camping, bushcraft, living, watering, fishing, etc.

For the Vikings, dragons were powerful creatures.
Archaeological finds of dragons on ships, staves and other decorated accessories of the Viking Age demonstrate a clear connection between the Vikings and the ancient magical origin.
For the Vikings, dragons were a song sign of worship.
Viking ships, which belonged to the highest-ranking jarls in the Viking empire, were often identified with a carved dragon's head on the prow.

Scandinavian mythology has three dragons:
Fafnir (the power of greed),
Nidhogg (dragon of the dead)
Jormungandr (Dragon of Ragnarok).

The Vikings believed that dragons were symbols of chaos, ruin and death. Shvidshe, dragons were a symbol of zeal. The Vikings often believed that in order to create the most important aspects of life, the world was also responsible for destruction and death. In the Viking culture, people even perceived the Universe as a cycle of population and decline.

For the Vikings, dragons were an important symbol; stinks were used to instill fear in the hearts of enemies and to warn of the tribes that were arriving on new shores. However, dragons were also depicted in jewelry, paintings and accessories as symbols of strength and loyalty.


"Damascus" and "damask steel" what are these tacos and how do they differ?


What is Damascus steel?


Damascus - they call steel that has a clear, well-marked surface pattern, which is a consequence of its heterogeneous, layered internal structure. The drawing stands out in the form of light steel lines on a gray or black background. It becomes especially noticeable after etching the product with a weak acid. But sometimes it happens that the pattern appears after the polishing process.
Since ancient times, exceptional qualities have been attributed to blades with such a pattern: high sharpness, flexibility and strength. Sometimes (especially against the background of products of imperfect medieval technologies) it was so. Why exactly "sometimes" will be discussed below.

 

In the photo: Folding knife DKH 01 (Damascus).


What is Damascus steel for and why is it so?
As you know, real iron is actually usually an alloy of iron itself with carbon.

  • If the carbon in the alloy is less than 0.3%, the metal will be soft, ductile and refractory. It was usually called the actual "iron". The quality and properties of this alloy can be judged by evaluating the mechanical properties of an ordinary nail.
  • With a carbon content of more than 0.3%, but less than 1.7%, steel will be obtained. Ordinary steel is very similar in its properties to iron. But it has one important difference: it can be hardened. That is, when heated, and then, sharply cooled, the steel acquires greater hardness. Unfortunately, along with this, it becomes fragile. In ancient times, when the technologies for producing steel and its hardening were not yet properly developed, many products made from it (sometimes even swords and armor) differed little in quality from, for example, a Soviet-made file. Such a file is strong and hard, but try to drop it on the floor or hit it, and it will most likely burst.
  • Well, if the carbon content in the alloy rises above 1.7%, you get cast iron. Cast iron melts easily and is well suited for casting, but is hard, brittle and cannot be forged. A cast-iron pipe that falls even from a small height shatters into smithereens.

As a result, we see that iron gives the alloy plasticity and increases its melting point. An increase in the carbon content in the alloy gives hardness, up to brittleness, and makes the material more fusible.

Blacksmiths and metallurgists have always sought to combine these two contradictory qualities in their products - plasticity and hardness so that they complement, rather than refute each other. In addition, elasticity was considered an extremely important property, which none of these alloys originally possessed.

In the old days, tools made of pure iron turned out to be too soft, and those made of overheated steel of that time were very fragile.

We do not know what genius came up with the idea to combine these two alloys into a kind of "sandwich" and thus combine the properties of different materials in one product. But it was definitely a genius akin to the inventor of the wheel or the fire.

Thus, in the manufacture of the blade, a layer of hard steel was laid between two layers of soft iron and forged. As a result, a product was obtained, which, thanks to such a “layered” structure, was stronger than pure iron and more ductile than hard, but brittle due to unsuccessful hardening, steel of those years.

Tools and tools made of pure iron were too soft, and those made of pure steel were too brittle. Therefore, in order to make, for example, a sword, it was necessary to make a sandwich from two iron plates, between which a steel plate was laid.

Such steel was called welded.

 

In the photo: Hunting knife DKY 002. The blade is made of forged Damascus.

Damascus is a further development of this technology. It occurred to someone (most likely in India) that if the product had more alternating layers, it would become even more flexible and stronger.

The method of obtaining such steel was quite laborious - the iron billet was forged in length, folded in half, then again forged and folded again. This action was repeated sometimes dozens of times. Thirty or forty repetitions would surprise no one. Although hardly anyone would share such subtleties of technology. For a long time, the masters kept it in the strictest confidence.

In the future, other, somewhat (quite a bit) less time-consuming methods were invented. But the principle of action has always remained approximately the same.

The result was a workpiece in which many of the thinnest high and low carbon layers created an amazing structure with new properties. It is the mixing of the layers that gives rise to the very beautiful pattern that distinguishes Damascus steel. It is the structure and the peculiarity of the arrangement of the layers that determine the qualities of the blade. Determine the combination of strength and flexibility in it.

By the way, for a trained eye, the drawing of steel could say a lot. Thus, Al-Kindi, a well-known medieval Arab weapon connoisseur, wrote: “Looking at patterned steel, you see it both outside and inside.” And, perhaps, one of the best European connoisseurs of damask and Damascus steels, P.P. Anosov argued that "... an experienced Asian will not make a mistake in choosing a blade and one at a time 

Zora will determine whether damask steel is viscous or brittle, hard or soft, elastic or weak.

Interestingly, modern experts often say the exact opposite, saying that "the quality of steel has nothing to do with the pattern on it." Most likely, this amusing curiosity is due to the fact that the methods of chemical and mechanical application of a Damascus pattern to the surface of any piece of steel, even an ordinary piece of iron, have long been known, which never lay next to a forge. Naturally, in our time, such fakes have become extremely common.

In addition, from under the hammer of the “master”, who does not know all the features of production, blanks with a pattern, like a real Damascus, but not rising in their characteristics above quite ordinary steel, may well come out. And here, in order to understand, perhaps one must already be a real connoisseur, no worse than Anosov or Al-Kindi.

So, firstly, from all that has been said, we can conclude that Damascus steel can be of different quality, and this depends on the internal structure of the layers and, of course, the skill of the blacksmith.

And secondly, we notice that along with the word "Damascus" the word "bulat" is also used. This, perhaps, is worth talking about a little separately.

In the photo: Hunting knife DKY 009.


What is "bulat" and how does it differ from "damascus"?


There was no single terminology in the old days, but there were many different kinds of local traditions. In addition, the means of transmitting information were very imperfect. For this reason, words and concepts were constantly changed and distorted, giving rise to a variety that was unthinkable in its complexity and illogicality.

We, accustomed to the unambiguity of terms, should constantly keep this in mind when we are dealing with various kinds of concepts and ideas of our ancestors.

Expensive and high-quality steel in different countries and different times was called differently. "Damascus", "Damask", "Wutz", "Kharalug", "Taban", "Khorasan", "Sham" - these names cannot be counted.

So, for a long time, steel of the highest quality in general on the territory of the Russian Empire was called “damask steel” (damask steel). And, apparently, they didn’t think at all that this word comes from the Iranian “pulad”, which meant cast steel.

As V. N. Khoreev writes in the book “Weapons from Damascus and Bulat”: “Damask steel is steel with an abnormally high (about 2% or more) carbon content, which has a set of properties that are incompatible in ordinary metal, namely, the maximum possible hardness and density combined with an equally high ductility. Natural damask steel is obtained by smelting, when a small finished ingot comes out of the furnace, initially carrying a magical internal structure.

In the photo: Hunting knife DKY 014 (Damascus).


The word "damascus", possibly (but not exactly) comes from another Arabic "damask", which means "wavy", "striated". It is not ruled out that this name came from various associations with the East and the colorful pattern of the famous Damascus fabrics. As usual in such cases, no one can say for sure.

The main thing that we see is that damask steel and damascus steel are obtained using completely different technologies. Since they did not know how to melt iron in most regions of our planet for a long time, damask steel was even rarer than welded patterned steel.

For this reason, the use of the term "damask" to "Damascus" is a clear result of confusion and, most likely, a consequence of the fact that few people saw real damask on the territory of the Russian Empire.

By the way, the pattern on cast damask steel can also be beautiful and pleasing to the eye. It is believed that it was laid during the crystallization of the ingot. This happened because iron and carbon, as we have already written, have different melting points. Later, during forging, this pattern could manifest itself in one way or another. But, by the way, some experts argue that it was the fine-grained, patternless varieties of cast wutz (as the Indians themselves called it) that were the best.

Alas, in the place of the invention of damask steel - in India, the secrets of its production were hidden so diligently that in the end they were completely lost. A. Vasilenko in his article "Damask Steel" claims that: "By the end of the 12th century, blades made of cast damask steel of the highest quality ... could not be made either in India, or in Syria, or in Persia."

At the end of the 18th century, Indian metallurgists were ruined by the import of cheap iron from England, and all hopes of restoring the lost tradition in her homeland evaporated completely.

Since then, the metallurgists of many countries have been looking for the secret of obtaining “that very damask steel”. Periodically, joyful statements were heard that the secret of the legendary "wootz" was unraveled. But is it really the same alloy, no one will tell you.

Nevertheless, even in our time, some manufacturers produce limited series of knives, the blades of which are declared as damask. It happens rarely, knives are so extremely expensive. One such manufacturer is, for example, Herbertz Limited Edition.

 

In the photo: Knife 2307 HRD (Damascus).


Are knives made from welded Damascus today?
Yes, dwish. It is forged Damascus, due to its beauty and the legends surrounding it, that is still extremely popular. In addition, the method of its production is no longer a secret.

You can see and buy some knives made of real forged Damascus in the Grand Way online store, and relatively inexpensively. For a very reasonable amount, you can become the owner of a knife, for which in the old days you would have given a small herd of horses or a fair amount of land.

We have a separate category for Damascus knives.

What is Damascus?
When working with Damascus, it is possible to obtain a great variety of different patterns. There are practically no limits for the master's imagination here. Blacksmiths who work with Damascus steel usually do not stop in experimentation, looking for new forms of pattern and methods for obtaining them.

Different types of Damascus are distinguished primarily by the features of the pattern. So, there are striped, mesh and wavy Damascus.

Quite rare, and therefore very valuable in the old days, was considered a cranked pattern across the entire width of the blade. In the East, the varieties Taban (“brilliant”) and Khorasan (“sunrise”) were most distinguished. These were very high-quality damasks, with a surprisingly beautiful pattern: on a dark background with a golden tint, there were clearly distinguishable, clear light lines forming a large cranked or mesh pattern.

In general, a whole tree of variants and forms diverges from these main types. Masters do not stop experiments and searches, and therefore the variety of drawings is only growing.

 

In the photo: The blade of the knife 2291 EWD (Damascus) is an excellent example of the so-called banded Damascus.

Does Damascus steel have disadvantages?

Of course, everyone in this world has flaws. There are no exceptions.

The main disadvantages of Damascus at all times were the laboriousness of manufacturing and the high consumption of material. It is believed that among medieval craftsmen, in the course of dozens of repeated forgings, the workpiece lost up to 85% of its weight until it finally turned into Damascus.

Due to such a significant consumption of material, time and effort, products made from such steel have always been very expensive. In addition, the secrecy of technologies, the limited number of craftsmen capable of making such blades, also influenced the price increase.

The second drawback is the fair susceptibility of Damascus to corrosion. The reason for this sad fact is the high carbon content and the almost complete absence of alloying elements in these steel grades.

Therefore, Damascus blades, like expensive stallions, have always needed especially careful care.

After use, they must be properly wiped dry. Keep away from moisture. And in case of rust, immediately remove it with available means (kerosene, sandpaper, etc.)

 

In the photo: Hunting knife DKY 027 (Damascus).

Are there better steels in our time than Damascus and bulat?


Perhaps the most obvious secret of damask steel was revealed to modern civilization by the same Anosov in 1830. Many minds in Europe struggled with this problem, but only Anosov had Tagil magnetite at hand for experiments.

But, quite soon after this discovery, more advanced, technologically advanced and cheap methods were developed for obtaining steels that combine the properties of strength and elasticity. These grades of steel may not always have been better than cast bulat in all respects, but they definitely made it a more convenient alternative to manufacture.

Progress does not stand still. The technologies of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, as well as the deep knowledge of modern scientists in physics and chemistry, gave us steels and alloys simply unimaginable and unthinkable for ancient blacksmiths. Moreover, they made products from these steels available not only to kings and shahs, but, in fact, to almost all of humanity.

For example, in the Grand Way store, you can find many models of knives that are not inferior in quality to many blades from ancient legends and tales.

For example, the blade of the CH Knives CH 3510 folding knife is made of 154CM, a remarkable American steel with a high carbon content. This steel grade was originally developed for the production of turbines. But the combination of its characteristics turned out to be so attractive to knifemakers that this steel is now firmly entrenched in the knife industry. 154CM is used by knife brands and individual craftsmen around the world.

The fact is that the structure and chemical composition of this steel grade allows it to be hardened to high hardness values (usually about 60HRC) without loss of toughness. The steel does not become brittle. This means that such a blade can be made extremely sharp, but it will still perfectly resist both chipping and mechanical stress.

Of course, 154CM, like all higher carbon steels, can rust if exposed to water or aggressive environments for a long time. But with proper care, "one hundred and fifty-fourth" shows itself from the best side.

The 154CM steel blade allows the CH3510 knife to rightfully occupy a place in the list of really top, premium models sold in the online store grand way. It is worth noting that the quality level of assembly of this knife is also adequate to its high status.
In the photo: The blade of the CH 3510 folding knife from CH Knives is made of 154CM steel.

Of no less interest in this regard is the S3 puukko flipper knife from Real Steel. Its blade is crafted from Böhler M390 premium martensitic chromium powder steel. This steel is distinguished by the highest strength-to-toughness ratio, it maintains excellent cutting edge sharpness and resists mechanical stress. And most importantly, with everything - it perfectly resists corrosion!

Böhler M390 is a premium steel. Knives from it are produced in a limited edition (according to Real Steel knives USA, the S3 puukko flipper series is 600 pieces). Therefore, a personal serial number is applied to the butt of each copy, which is also inscribed in the passport attached to the knife upon sale.

Does Damascus retain its significance in our time?


Yes and no. Moreover, the romantic “yes” here clearly outweighs the dry practical “no”.
Of course, getting Damascus forged is no longer the only affordable way to get high quality blade steel.
But what has not gone anywhere is the aesthetic and cultural significance of this steel. A knife with a Damascus blade is still a very beautiful thing. A welcome addition to the collection and a prestigious, valuable gift.
The legends surrounding Damascus steel blades only add to their exclusivity and significance in the eyes of people. After all, buying such a knife, you get not just a high-quality cutting tool, you get a part of the legend, a small piece of the glorious history of mankind, a reminder of the times of brilliant blacksmiths, great kings and glorious heroes.
Such values are eternal and, perhaps, they cannot be counted in money.

 

Нож со стали CPM-S90V

 


Таким образом, ексклюзивні ножі ручної роботи knife.net.ua отличаются высокой прочностью и могут выдерживать достаточно большие нагрузки и при этом отлично сохранить заточку. Имеют отличные антикоррозионные свойства и не вступают в реакции с большинством щелочей и кислот, то есть особого ухода этим ножам не требуется, что делает им огромный плюс при использовании на природе, охоте, рыбалке и/или в экстремальных условиях*. Пожалуй единственным минусом ножей из стали M398 является их стоимость, которая достаточно высока и надо быть к этому готовым.

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Moose

   

A moose, also known as a moose, is a mammal that belongs to the order of even-toed ungulates, the suborder of ruminants, the deer family, the genus of moose (lat. Alces).

 

moose photo

The name "moose" probably comes from the Old Slavic "ols", which indicates the red color of the fur that newborn moose have. Another common name of the moose in Russia since ancient times, "sohatiy", apparently arose because of the similarity of its horns with a plowshare, an ancient agricultural tool.

Sokha photo

Industry

Moose - description, characteristics, structure. What does a moose look like?

Moose is the largest representative of the deer family. The height of the elk at the withers is from 1.70 to 2.35 m, the body length reaches 3 m, and the weight, depending on the sex, varies from 300 to 600 and more kilograms. Some sources indicate the maximum weight of a moose at 825 kg. Males are usually larger than females. Females weigh approximately 200-490 kg.

Sokhty photo

Moose are a little clumsy in appearance: high-legged, with a short body. They have a powerful chest and shoulders. The moose's legs are long, not thin, with narrow, long hooves. The tail is short, but noticeable. The head is heavy, up to 500 mm long, humped. On the head there are large, very mobile ears, the inflated upper lip hangs over the lower one, and under the throat there is a soft leathery outgrowth, an "earring", 25-40 cm long.

Head of a moose photo

Moose fur consists of coarser long hairs and soft undercoat. In winter, the fur grows up to 10 cm in length. The hair on the nape and neck is longer, in the form of a mane, and reaches 20 cm, which makes it seem that the animal has a hump. The softer fur that grows on the head covers even the lips of the mammal, only on the upper lip between the nostrils there is a small exposed area.

The moose has a brown-black or black color in the upper part of the body, which turns brown in the lower part of the body. The back of the body, rump and buttocks have the same color as the rest of the body: the so-called tail "mirror" is absent. The lower part of the legs is whitish. In summer, moose color is darker than in winter. The length of the animal's tail is 12-13 cm.

Moose fur photo

Photo credit: AwOiSoAk KaOsIoWa, CC BY-SA 3.0

Front teeth on the upper jaw of the moose are absent, but they are compensated by 8 incisors on the lower jaw. Animals also have 6 pairs of molars (molar teeth) and 6 pairs of premolars (small molars), which are used for chewing food.

Moose swim well (can swim up to 20 km) and run quite fast. The moose's speed reaches 55 km/h.

Moose have the largest horns among all mammals. They reach a span of 180 cm and weigh up to 20 kg. The horn consists of a short trunk and a wide, flat, slightly concave blade, which is surrounded by up to 18 appendages. The number of appendages, their length, as well as the size of the blade itself are different in moose of different ages. The older the moose, the more powerful its horns, the wider the blade, and the shorter the appendages on it. Young fawns grow only small horns a year after birth.

Horns of a young elk photo

Photo by Jan Ševčík

At first, elk horns are soft, covered with delicate skin and wool. Blood vessels pass inside the horns, so the horns of a young animal can get sick from insect bites and bleed when wounded, which naturally causes physical pain. A year and 2 months after the birth of the animal, the horns harden, and the blood supply to them stops. In the fifth year of life, moose horns (antlers) become large, powerful and heavy: the blade becomes wider, and the appendages on it are shorter.

Moose horn photo

When does a moose drop its antlers and why?

In November - December, the moose sheds its old antlers. This process does not cause pain to the animal, but only brings relief. To get rid of the horns as quickly as possible, the elk rubs its horns against the trees. In April - May, the animal begins to grow new horns, which finally harden by the end of July, and in August, moose clean them of their skin. Females do not have horns.

Moose need horns not for protection from predators, as it might seem, but only for the mating ritual. They attract females and repel rival males. After the end of the mating period, they lose their function, and the moose sheds its antlers. This facilitates his existence, as it would be difficult to move with such a weight on his head in winter.

And yet, why do horns fall off? The fact is that after the mating season, the amount of sex hormones in the blood of the elk decreases, as a result, cells appear at the base of the horns, which destroy the bone substance and weaken the place where the horns are attached to the skull. Eventually, the horns fall off. Discarded moose antlers, which contain a lot of protein, are eaten by rodents, birds and predators, or softened in swampy soil.

Antlers of a moose in the forest

Photo by: Berdick

Where does the moose live?

Moose are common in the Northern Hemisphere. By the 19th century, the large population of moose was completely destroyed in Europe, excluding Russia, and only as a result of protective measures taken at the beginning of the 20th century, these animals were resettled in Northern and Eastern Europe. Now on the European continent, moose live in the countries of the Scandinavian Peninsula (Finland, Norway), in the north of Ukraine, in Belarus, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, the Baltic countries (Latvia, Estonia), in Russia: from the Kola Peninsula in the north to the southern steppes. In Asia, they occupy the taiga zone of Siberia, reaching the forest tundra, as well as the Far East, northeastern China, and Northern Mongolia. In North America, moose live in Canada, Alaska, and the northeastern United States.

Moose habitat photo

Photo credit: Jürgen Gbruiker, CC BY-SA 3.0

As for natural habitats, moose usually settle in coniferous and mixed forests with swamps, quiet rivers and streams; in the forest tundra - on birches and aspen; along the banks of steppe rivers and lakes - in floodplain thickets; in mountain forests - in valleys, on gentle slopes, plateaus. Loggers prefer forests with dense undergrowth, young growth, avoiding high-stemmed, monotonous forest areas.

Where does the moose live photo

Photo credit: Xyzzycoder, CC BY 3.0

Moose are more or less sedentary and do not move around much. Making small transitions in search of food, they stay in one area for a long time. In summer, the area where moose lives and feeds is wider than in winter. From places where the snow cover reaches 70 cm or more in winter, mammals move to areas with less snow. This is characteristic of the regions of the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East. The first to go are moose from fawns, followed by males and females without offspring. In the spring, moose return to their usual habitats in the reverse order.

Track of a moose in the snow photo

Photo author: Oleksandr Belyaev, CC0

Moose are mostly kept alone or in small groups. In winter, animals gather in herds in places where there is more feed and less snow. Such favorable places, in which there is a lot of food and a lot of individuals gather, are called "stable" in Russia, and "yard" in Canada. In the spring, the moose will disperse again.

Photo of a moose in the forest

What does moose eat?

Moose is a herbivore that feeds on woody and shrubby and herbaceous plants, mosses, lichens, and mushrooms. The type of feed changes with the change of season. In summer, the main food of animals is the leaves of trees and shrubs, aquatic plants, grasses. Moose eat the best leaves of aspen, rowan, ash, maple, birch, buckthorn, cherry, and willow. Also, mammals like swamp, water and near-water plants: water lilies, water lilies, calendula, horsetails. In spring and early summer, they eat sedge in large quantities. They prefer tall, juicy umbrella grasses, cypress or Ivan-tea, sorrel, which grow on mountains and meadows. Until the end of summer, moose eat mushrooms, sprigs of blueberries and lingonberries with berries. In autumn, moose also eat bark and fallen leaves. In September, animals begin to bite the shoots and branches of trees and shrubs, and by November they almost completely switch to wood food: branches, needles, bark. In the first half of winter, moose prefer to feed on deciduous species of trees and shrubs, in the second half on conifers. The winter food of moose includes raspberries, pine, willow, fir, mountain ash. Also, animals eat bark during a thaw or in southern regions, where it does not freeze as much as in the north, they eat lichens, finding them on trees during a thaw or on the ground under snow. Mammals also extract sedge rags and berry bushes from under the snow. In winter, moose drink very little water and do not eat snow in order not to lose heat.

In different parts of the range of habitat, woodpeckers can use different feeds. Very often, animals in one region absolutely do not eat food that in another part they use with pleasure. An adult moose eats up to 35 kg of feed in the summer and 12-15 kg in the winter.

In addition, moose are very fond of salt and visit natural or artificial salt marshes almost everywhere: they gnaw salt-rich soil, lick stones, and drink brackish water. Saltwater for moose is a source of minerals.

What does a moose eat photo

Moose do not have a specific feeding and resting time during the day. In the summer, with the appearance of insects (mosquitoes, midges, gnats) and the onset of heat, they rest more during the day, resting in cool or damp places, on meadows where the wind blows, lying in shallow water, periodically entering water up to their necks. They eat mainly at dawn or at night. In winter, periods of feeding and rest alternate several times a day. In severe frosts, the moose lies down a lot, plunging into the loose snow, wanders into the thicket under the cover of young conifers. During the race, animals are active at any time of the day.

Why does moose eat fly agaric?

Moose, like some other animals, eat mushrooms, including amanita. The effect of these poisonous mushrooms on the body of animals has not yet been studied. Most likely, with the help of a small amount of poison, moose expel parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, among Siberian hunters there is an opinion that moose eat amanita during the hunt. Perhaps, by eating a few mushrooms, the moose increases the tone of the body.

Life expectancy of moose.

The lifespan of moose under favorable conditions is 20-25 years. But in nature, this term is much shorter and often does not exceed 10 years. Most of the moose die early: from natural enemies, wolves and bears, from diseases, from the hands of man, for whom the moose is the most important commercial animal, they drown on river crossings during the ice retreat. Young fawns cannot stand the cold in long springs.

Moose animal photo

Types of moose, photos and names.

The genus of moose has always been considered to consist of one species - moose (lat. Alces Alces). Within the species, several American, European and Asian subspecies were distinguished. Thanks to the modern achievements of genetics, a new classification has been defined, according to which the genus of moose (lat. Alces) includes 2 species: the European moose and the American moose. The number of subspecies is still undefined and likely to change.

  • Species Alces Alces (Linnaeus, 1758) – European (eastern) moose
  • Subspecies Alces Alces Alces (Linnaeus, 1758) is a European moose
  • Alces subspecies Alces caucazicus (Vereshchagin, 1955) - Caucasian moose
  • Species Alces Americanus (Clinton, 1822) - American (western) moose
  • The subspecies Alces Americanus Americanus (Clinton, 1822) is the eastern Canadian moose
  • Subspecies Alces Americanus Cameloides (Milne-Edwards, 1867) – Ussuri moose

Below is a description of currently existing moose species.

  • European moose (lat. Alces Alces ) in Russia is often called sokha. The length of the moose reaches 270 cm, and the height at the withers is 220 cm. The European moose weighs up to 600-655 kg. Females are smaller in size. The color of the animal is dark or black-brown, with a black stripe on the back. The end of the muzzle and the legs below are light. The upper lip, belly and inner parts of the legs are almost white. In summer, the color is darker. Elk antler with a well-developed shovel, up to 135 cm in span. The European elk lives in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, the European part of Russia, in the Urals, in Western Siberia up to the Yenisei and Altai.

European moose photo (lat. Alces Alces)

Photo by: Elias Neideck

Muzzle of a European moose (lat. Alces alces)

Photo by: Milan Kořinek

  • American elk (lat. Alces Americanus) - sometimes this species is called East Siberian. It has a variegated color: the top of the body and the neck are rusty or gray-brown; belly, lower sides and upper legs are black. The color is darker in summer, lighter in winter. The weight of an adult elk varies from 300 to 600 kg or more. Body dimensions are about the same as in Alces Alces. Elk horns have a widely separated blade. The front process, separated from the blade, branches. The range of the horns reaches more than 100 cm. The width of the blade reaches 40 cm. The American elk lives in Eastern Siberia, the Far East, Northern Mongolia, and North America.

American moose photo (lat. Alces Americanus)

Breeding of moose.

Moose are ready for breeding at the age of 3. The mating period begins in August - September and lasts about two months, sometimes it can end only in November. A male rarely has more than one female during a rut. On elk farms, it has happened that one male has impregnated several females, but this is unusual.

Male moose photo

male elk

Female moose (moose) photo

Female moose. Photo credit: Tony Hisgett, CC BY 2.0

During the rut period, moose lose their caution and roam the roads. Males start the race with a dull moan, "groan" or roar in the morning and evening, are aggressive, break branches and tree tops with their horns, can attack people, fight among themselves over females. Steaming happens as often as once a day, very quickly, within a few seconds. The moose's pregnancy lasts 225-240 days (according to some data, up to 250 days). Calving lasts from April to July, depending on the area of ​​residence. A moose is usually born alone. Old females can have two cubs, one of which often dies.

Baby moose photo

A newborn baby moose has a light red monotone color. The baby gets up on its feet already a few minutes after birth, and after a few days it freely follows its mother. The female elk feeds him milk usually for 3.5-4 months, sometimes longer. Moose milk is similar to cow's milk, but it is fattier (fat content 8-13%), less sweet and contains 5 times more proteins (12-16%). At birth, fawns weigh from 6 to 16 kg, but they gain weight very quickly and increase it 10 times in six months.

Moose as a pet.

There is a practice of domesticating moose. After the first feeding, a wild moose becomes attached to a person for life. Females easily get used to milking. Moose are very hardy animals, they can be sledded and ridden. They are irreplaceable in swampy taiga, hard-to-pass forests, off-road. In the summer, they can be used for work only at night, as animals can die from the heat. It is much colder in winter, so there is no such restriction.

Elk meat is less fatty and tougher than that of other deer, used in the production of raw smoked sausage and preserves.

Domestic moose photo

Photo credit: LebedevXD, CC BY-SA 3.0

Enemies of moose in nature.

Among animals, moose have few enemies. Not every animal found a common language with the "forest giant". This can be done mainly by bears (brown and grizzly), as well as wolves. Bears attack moose in snowy northern areas in the spring when they come out of their dens. Predators try to either ambush the moose or drive it into dense thickets, where it cannot fight back with its hooves. They can chase moose for many kilometers. Often, their prey is young moose and newborn fawns, although females fiercely protect their offspring. There are known cases when moose, defending themselves, killed or seriously injured a bear attacker with their hooves.

Another enemy of moose is the wolf. Unlike bears, wolves hunt moose in areas with little snow in their habitat. In deep snow, a wolf cannot catch up even with a young moose. A wolf does not attack an adult moose without extreme necessity. A powerful animal can easily kill him with a hoof. Therefore, wolves prefer to attack young animals and sick animals. Wolves hunt adult moose only in a pack, trying to come from behind.

The value of other predators, which include wolverine and lynx, is small for moose. They can only harm very young, injured, sick and exhausted animals.

The moose has been a farm animal for humans since ancient times. At the same time, man is the main enemy of moose. Even with the help of primitive weapons, people were able to completely destroy moose in Western Europe until the 20th century. Currently, poachers are actively reducing the number of moose, as well as other ungulates. In addition, many moose fall under the wheels of cars. But the moose was included in the International Red Book and the Red Book of Russia. At the moment, the protection status of the animal causes the least concern.

moose photo

Photo credit: Ryan Hodnett, CC BY-SA 4.0

What is the difference between an elk and a deer?

Elk and deer are representatives of the same family, which have significant differences between themselves:

  • The moose is the largest of the deer family, an adult moose weighs from 300 to 600 or more kilograms, and its height at the withers can reach 2.35 meters. A deer is a smaller animal. Its weight usually does not exceed 200 kg, and its height reaches 1.5 meters in large species.
  • The moose's legs are long and thin, expanding into hooves. Deer have shorter and more proportional legs.
  • Deer horns develop vertically, while elk horns develop horizontally and have a different structure.

Deer and moose horns photo

Above is a deer, below is an elk

  • Female moose, like female deer, do not have antlers. But there is an exception among deer: for example, female reindeer wear horns, while water deer are hornless regardless of gender.
  • As a rule, moose live separately, and among deer there are both single animals and herds.
  • The moose spends a lot of time in water, which is not characteristic of many deer. Although, for example, water deer live in swampy areas, they are excellent swimmers and can swim several kilometers.

Deer and moose differences photo

On the left is a deer, on the right is an elk

Interesting facts about moose:

  • A moose cannot see a motionless person at a distance of several meters, but it has good hearing and sense of smell.
  • In Siberia, in ancient times, in addition to the word "shohaty", the name "beast", which is applied to moose, was common.
  • During the civil war, the 1st Cavalry Army of Semyon Budyonny had a special unit whose fighters rode moose. These detachments were formed for the rapid movement of combat units in the difficult swampy areas of northern Ukraine and Belarus. Budyonny's experience was also used during the Soviet-Finnish war. Our moose fighters caused quite a stir among the Finns who happened to see them. Rumors spread among the Finnish soldiers that "the Russians made a deal with the spirits of the forest."
  • Having established that moose droppings contain a lot of cellulose due to the fact that moose mainly eat wood, the Swedes began to use it to produce environmentally friendly paper "Moose poopoopaper".
  • There has been a moose monument in Vyborg since 1928. According to legend, it was erected in memory of the elk who saved a group of lost hunters from a pack of wolves at the cost of his life.
  • A moose becomes attached to its tame person for life. A tame elk got lost, met its "feeder" in the taiga 2 years later, recognized him by his voice, followed him 10 km to the farm and stayed there to live.
  • In heraldry, the moose is a symbol of endurance, strength and power.

elk pictures

Information from the site: https://zelenvsit.cx.ua/los.html


Wenge (Milletia laurentii)

Wenge (Milletia laurentii)

A species of tropical tree of the legume family (Fabaceae) grows in the jungles of western equatorial Africa. Latin name - Millettia laurentii. International code: MTLR.

European colonists who owned tracts of African land named it Wenge. Other names for Wenge are Congo rosewood or Congolese rosewood, dikela, mibotou, bokonge, awong. In the eastern part of the black continent there grows a species called Рanga Рanga. Milletia ctuhmanii and Panga Panga are related in appearance and properties. The first mention of the valuable breed appeared in 1904. There is a real hunt for this exotic, rare and expensive plant. It is almost on the verge of extinction. Poor people in Africa cut down and resell the wood.

Botanical description

Wenge treeThe tree reaches a height of up to 20 meters, and a diameter of 1 m. It is very rare to find trunks of a regular cylindrical shape. They are mostly bent to one side and have few root shoots. The smooth bark of a tree up to 12 mm thick is poisonous. An incision in the bark promotes the appearance of milky sap.

Wood

The two-color core can be light or dark coffee in color. It looks like bitter undiluted chocolate. The growth rings are distinct, the rays are not visible. Large pores. Brinell hardness: about 4.5, which is harder than oak and ash.

The wood requires hydrothermal treatment and hot sawing. The texture of the material is rough, coarse, with straight fibers. Large pores contain mineral and oily substances. Wood has the following properties:

  • average density - 870 kg/m3;
  • hardness on the Janka scale - 8600 N;
  • modulus of rupture - 151.7 MPa;
  • elastic modulus—17.59 GPa.

The moisture content in a dry wenge board does not exceed 12%. This timber species is not listed in the CITES Appendices, but is included in the IUCN Red List. It is listed as critically endangered due to a population decline of more than 50% over the last three generations, caused by the decline of its natural range and exploitation.

Wenge logs

Wenge wood is popular because of its dimensional stability and color contrast when mixed with lighter woods such as maple. This makes it especially popular in the production of expensive furniture, wooden canes, etc.

Interesting Facts

The indigenous people of Africa made weapons from durable wenge wood. And Voodoo priests took the core of the tree to perform magical rituals.

 

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